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Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.
Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.
Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.
An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.
The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.
Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.
A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.
Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals.
Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms. Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:.
Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.
Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.
Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.
The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.
Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.
Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.
Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.
Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.
Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.
The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.
Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects.
Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times. Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.
The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages:   . The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.
Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.
This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0. The average was 0. Artificial lakes may be contaminated with mercury due to the absorption by the water of mercury from submerged trees and soil.
For example, Williston Lake in northern British Columbia, created by the damming of the Peace River in , is still sufficiently contaminated with mercury that it is inadvisable to consume fish from the lake.
Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: auto parts, batteries , fluorescent bulbs, medical products, thermometers, and thermostats.
For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.
Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.
Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range.
Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plant operated in the s and s.
Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for. A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan.
It is estimated that over 3, people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.
The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves.
These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments.
Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries. Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U.
Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.
Species of fish that are high on the food chain , such as shark , swordfish , king mackerel , bluefin tuna , albacore tuna , and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.
Because mercury and methylmercury are fat soluble, they primarily accumulate in the viscera , although they are also found throughout the muscle tissue.
Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, methylmercury concentrations in the fish tissue increase over time.
Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume. This process is called biomagnification.
Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata , Japan , now called Minamata disease. Some facial creams contain dangerous levels of mercury.
Most contain comparatively non-toxic inorganic mercury, but products containing highly toxic organic mercury have been encountered.
Toxic effects include damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs. Mercury poisoning can result in several diseases, including acrodynia pink disease , Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease.
Symptoms typically include sensory impairment vision, hearing, speech , disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.
Case—control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.
Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism , irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia.
With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue.
Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams and depression.
Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination.
Mercury symbol meaning. Ones, Fours and Fives: Within the realm of symbolism, there are thousands of languages. Some languages speak more clearly to some people than others.
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The dedication occurred on 15 May, BC. The temple was regarded as a fitting place to worship a swift god of trade and travel, since it was a major center of commerce as well as a racetrack.
Since it stood between the plebeian stronghold on the Aventine and the patrician center on the Palatine, it also emphasized the role of Mercury as a mediator.
Because Mercury was not one of the early deities surviving from the Roman Kingdom , he was not assigned a flamen "priest" , but he did have his own major festival, on 15 May, the Mercuralia.
During the Mercuralia, merchants sprinkled water from his sacred well near the Porta Capena on their heads. Mercury features in the first published comic book story of comics legend Jack Kirby Mercury in the 20th Century published in Red Raven Comics 1, The United States' so-called Mercury dime , issued from to , actually features a Winged Liberty and not the god Mercury, but is so named because of a misinterpretation of the goddess's Phrygian cap as wings.
Kleeblattförmiger Dolch oder Kreuz über einem Stern umgedrehtes Hexagramm. Rad unter einem Stern umgedrehtes Hexagramm.
Granatapfel mit einem Stern Hexagramm im Innern . Halbmond mit Stern umgedrehtes Hexagramm in waagerechter Form. Stehende Mondsichel ; Pflanzmond; Tagbogen des Mondes wird niedriger nidsigend ; vgl.
Sonnenwende und Äquinoktium. Sonnensymbol ; Gold , Sonntag. Quinkunx Astrologie. Semisextil Astrologie. Halbquadrat Astrologie.
Anderthalbquadrat Astrologie. Quintil Astrologie. Seeing in the Dark: How Amateur Astronomers. Simon and Schuster Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 7 , Davies, et al.
Surface Mapping , Atlas of Mercury. Astronomical Journal 70 , — The Data Book of Astronomy. Nature , —2. Flight to Mercury. Columbia University Press Nature , SP Atlas of Mercury.
Acta Astronautica 39 1 , — Mariner—10 Mission and Spacecraft , Atlas of Mercury. Space Science Reviews 21 , — Universe Today,